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Статья Russian Tornado Outbreak of 9 June 1984

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Статья Russian Tornado Outbreak of 9 June 1984

1. Introduction

On 9 June 1984, at least eight tornadic thunderstorms tracked across western Russia, producing severe weather mainly between 0600– 1600 UTC (1000–2000 Moscow daylight saving time [MT]). There have been several scientific papers published on Russian tornadoes, some including information about the 9 June 1984 events. Vasiliev et al. (1985a) provided the most detail, documenting five separate areas with tornado or wind damage across Russia. Some of these details suggest that the Ivanovo tornado was violent, which is rare in Russia. According to Snitkovskii (1987), only two events since 1844 were rated as F4 on the Fujita damage scale (Fujita 1971), the Moscow tornado of 29 June 1904 and the Ivanovo tornado that is the focus of this paper. Human deaths from tornadoes in Russia are rare; and multiple tornadoes on the same day are quite uncommon as well. The number of fatalities on 9 June 1984 is reported; however, the details are uncertain and will be discussed in section 5a. Thus, this severe weather event is worthy of further investigation.

Climatological information on Russian tornadoes was presented by Lyakhov (1986), Snitkovskii (1987), Vasiliev et al. (1985a), and Peterson (2000). These works reveal that the majority of tornadoes occur west of the Ural Mountains in western Russia. The tornado season there and in the adjacent republics of eastern Europe generally extends from late April to mid September, with a peak in June and July. Snitkovskii (1987) presented details of all tornado reports (including estimates of tornado intensity) from 1844–1986, and a brief summary of surface and 500-hPa patterns accompanying these tornadoes for cases since the 1950s. The typical upper-air pattern for the northwestern part of the former Soviet Union is a deep 500-hPa trough to the west of the affected area with a strong southwesterly jet over the region